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“The emperor or king gave his subjects the “gifts” of protection and provision. In return, subjects offered loyalty, homage, service, tithes, and taxes. If you failed to return the ruler’s favor—such as not paying a tribute or refusing to send your son to serve in the army—you were branded an “ingrate.” Ingratitude was disloyalty and sometimes treason, crimes punishable by denial of favor, reduction in rank, seizure of property, enslavement, prison, exile, or death.”

— Grateful: The Subversive Practice of Giving Thanks by Diana Butler Bass

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